User-oriented design is a method in which user's needs and comfort are met along with his comfort in design process. Lighting of some buildings and urban elements is done for the purpose of attracting audiences in urban nightscape, however the expectations of the users are not thoroughly met. In this paper, user expectations from nightscape are investigated through visual and perceptual attention approach and it's far beyond visual comfort. Therefore, the key question is around; what are the factors affecting user oriented nightscape lighting based on attention?
To answer the research question, two places of nightscape with different visual elements in Ab va Atash park are selected. Using survey and eye-tracking techniques, the relationship between different variables of visual attention and attention restoration as perceptual dimension was obtained. Also, by determining the visual preferences, the relation between lighting the elements of landscape with promoting the nightscape based on attention approach was investigated. Finally, a conceptual model of user oriented nightscape based on user attention is presented.
User oriented nightscape lighting (UONL), Attention, Visual perception, Attention restoration theory
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