Changes in the total lit area and the radiance of stably lit area in the German federal states from 2012-2016 were investigated using the Day-Night Band of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite. Most states increased in both lit area and radiance. The lit area of Bayern and Schleswig-Holstein grew rapidly, at annual rates of 9.7% and 8.8% respectively. Thüringen was dramatically different from the other states, with a 4.5% annual decrease in lit area, and a 17% annual decrease in the radiance of stably lit areas. In at least some cases, the increases in lighting in Bayern area associated with transitions to LEDs, which may not be indicative of a transition towards sustainable lighting. In addition to these results, this paper discusses the role of remotely sensed nighttime data within the context of sustainable lighting.
Germany, sustainable lighting, light pollution, remote sensing, rebound effect, VIIRS DNB
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